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Cardiometabolics in Menopause

This study is a literature review, aimed at exploring the link between menopause and cardiometabolic health in women. The authors note that, post menopause, women are at greater risk of heart disease and associated conditions, however, there do seem to be causal factors and mitigating responses that can help heart health management.

The menopausal transition is associated with an increase in fat mass (predominantly in the truncal region), an increase in insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and endothelial dysfunction. Exposure to endogenous oestrogen during the reproductive years provides women with protection against cardiovascular disease, which is lost around 10 years after the onset of menopause. In particular, women with vasomotor symptoms during menopause seem to have an unfavourable cardiometabolic profile. Early management of the traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease (ie, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and smoking) is essential; however, it is important to recognise in the reproductive history the female-specific conditions (ie, gestational hypertension or diabetes, premature ovarian insufficiency, some gynaecological diseases such as functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea, and probably others) that could enhance the risk of cardiovascular disease during and after the menopausal transition.

Link: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/landia/article/PIIS2213-8587(22)00076-6/fulltext